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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Manal al-Sharif is best known for challenging laws and mores that keep women down in her native country.

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中国银行业监管机构的数据显示,去年中国商业银行的净利润总量增长了2.4%。中小银行的利润增长继续加速,而大型银行的利润增长则放慢了。
单词extend 联想记忆:
FlightAware以航班跟踪应用程序而为旅行者所熟知,从2010年到2012年,这家网站按照美国交通部的规定,统计了感恩节和冬季假期(圣诞节至新年)旅行期间美国18家大航空公司和地区航空公司的航班延误情况。

如果一个“推文幼稚的像个幼儿园小朋友”一样最年长的人,都可以当选总统,那为什么反过来不试一下,看看年轻人能否当选并明智地执政?
6、《招魂2:恩菲德的骚灵》
如果你很卖命的工作并且给公司创造了价值,你本应该得到酬谢。如果你的老板在两年之内没有给你涨薪水,去申请吧。如果老板不同意,还考虑什么,走吧。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

雷士照明阎焱或将退出董事会

n. 妥协,折衷,折衷案
Give Me Space
[nju:'tris]

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

3. Deepika Padukone
The U.S. Veterans Day holiday also coincides with other World War One-era holidays around the world, including Remembrance Day in Britain and the Commonwealth nations of Australia and Canada.
其实我一直都在等你提到篮网队的处境,既然你没说,那就我来说吧。林书豪已经因腿筋受伤缺阵几周了。他们是唯一有摆烂权利但是不摆烂的球队!

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The infectious disease known as scarlet fever famously reached pandemic proportions in the 19th century, striking down the young and the weak across the Western world.
  • 过百城市松绑 一二线楼市待升
  • Countrywide, month-on-month prices rose in 59 out of 70 cities last month – down from 62 – were unchanged in four and fell in eleven. Cities where prices fell from the previous month included Shenzhen (down 0.3 per cent), Hangzhou (down 0.4 per cent) and Xiamen (down 0.2 per cent).
  • 涂料行业质量问题频发 政府实施新法规重新整顿
  • 90后买房被高房价“赶鸭子上架”
  • 现年60岁的罗斯是位于波士顿的哈佛大学的教授,而89岁的沙普利是美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的教授。
    唐纳德特朗普(Donald Trump)会遭遇弹劾程序吗?

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 以房养老试点期间市场遇冷 亟需配套政策落地, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

14个热点城市房价停涨 三线城市房价走势平稳

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

红木价格还未触底 处于艰难的库存消化期

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Friends wasn't known for being the most diverse show on television at the time, since the cast was comprised of almost entirely white actors. None of the main characters were anything other than "mainstream." Even the acknowledgement of Ross's first wife Carol being a lesbian was met with jokes about sexuality (mostly from Joey), and sexist comments were frequently incorporated into the script.
    在周某投毒之后,他的一名唐姓同学发现了饮水机的水呈乳白色,还有一股刺鼻的气味。
  • 200911/88512.shtmlDuring NATO’s 1999 air war over Yugoslavia the Atlantic alliance struck hundreds of targets over Serbia and Kosovo. Most were uncontroversial: air-defense sites army headquarters and other military targets. The destruction of one target in particular however set off a wave of anti-Western—and anti-American in particular—protests half a world away. That target was the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.
    n. 肩膀,肩部
    But, when the skeletal remains were analyzed, the researchers found that the tombs had been reused multiple times. Some of the tombs contain more than 10 occupants, and the"repeated multiple burials warrant further study," the researcherswrote.
    201312/270511.shtml重点单词
    decision

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 陶瓷企业与供应商“智斗”内幕
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 机构称下半年经济增速无持续回落风险

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Nevertheless, as New Yorkers grow accustomed to a sharing economy, buildings might ultimately have to embrace it.
会,即便真实的GDP增速未超过这个数字。关于中国真正的(相对官方数据而言)GDP增长率的猜测,已经衍生出一个由相关经济学专家组成的作坊式行业。官方数据看似稳定而美好——有人怀疑中国有关部门对数据进行了“美化”,调整了一些数字、使其符合增长目标。因此,即使2018年中国的增长磕磕绊绊,官方的增速也几乎肯定会高于预定的6.5%。
4、《美国队长3:内战》
Will China’s reported gross domestic product growth surpass 6.5 per cent
“我们一直用很高的标准要求自己”,库里赛后表示。“我们在第三节没有给他们防守端施加压力,草率地结束了我们的进攻并且给了他们机会。有很多需要我们继续提高的地方,当然,每个人都愿意在赢球的同时接受教训。”
St Gallen outperforms other ranked schools thanks in part to strong scores for international criteria. More than 90 per cent of students and 80 per cent of faculty are from abroad. The school is also ranked second for both the international mobility of its students and their international exposure during the programme.
Human bodies are frail, easily damaged packages full of parts that can never fully come back once lost. Luckily, researchers worldwide are working on replacing every bit of the body to make us all cyborgs.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Of course your office space should be organized and personalized, but it won’t be re-energized without you, the worker. Simple office exercises and stretches will help you keep up the pace for a long (yet productive) workday ahead.
  • LED照明市场目前的发展趋势:传统渠道商多挑战 商家遇八大困惑
  • The illustration on Google's homepage on Monday may look pretty whimsical, but it's spotlighting a very serious issue: clean water. Not bad for an 11-year-old from Long Island.
    ‘The Americans’ Set in the Reagan era, this FX series is nearly as deceptive as KGB agents posing as suburban American couple: In its second season, “The Americans” proved to be a drama about love, family, friendship and mistrust disguised as a Cold War thriller.
  • 广州个人出租房屋减税了!月租金未达2000元税负减半
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 3. Kate Upton
    根据全球最大航运公司马士基航运公司(Maersk Line)的数据,从汽车到集装箱运输的纺织品,1月中国对巴西出口同比下降60%,而通过集装箱进入拉美最大经济体的总进口量减半。
  • "We are also witnessing a positive progress of diversification," he said. "In the past, most Chinese companies' patent filings were concentrated in the ICT sector, but now there are increasingly patents filed in engines, turbines, sports, automotive, and biotechnology sectors."
    农业原材料,特别是所谓的软性大宗商品,例如糖、咖啡和棉花,今年的表现在最佳之列。
  • Liu Fei was also a half-brother of the Emperor Wu of Han who ruled from 141BC to 97BC.
    And second, while perceptions haven't changed much, the reality has: Making sure stuff gets where it needs to go, as cheaply and efficiently as possible, has evolved into a high-tech, high-stakes game that calls for a scarce combination of "hard" and "soft" skills.
  • 10. "Arrow" (2.2 million)
    revision
    答:我的一些作品也来到了美国,自己的作品能够在这里收到喜爱,对此我感到非常的开心和荣幸。
  • 对于很多西方白人来说,取得“获得性身份认同”(登上山巅)的机会似乎已经变得遥不可及。所以“先赋性身份认同”——也就是他们的“白”——变得比以往更加重要起来。
    而在科隆游戏展上正式宣布的特色作品中,《寂静岭》(Silent Hills)的最新续集赫然在列。这是科乐美(Konami)最为畅销的恐怖题材游戏(还据此改编成了两部电影)。世界级游戏和电影专家,《合金装备5:幻痛》(Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain)的制作者小岛秀夫,以及《环太平洋》(Pacific Rim)的导演吉尔莫o德尔o托罗在这部游戏中强强联手。曾出演美剧《行尸走肉》(The Walking Dead)的影星诺曼o瑞杜斯将在游戏中担纲主角。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 广州:失业提取公积金有年龄限制 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

涂料行业去产能将在2017年开打硬仗

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

看政策“吃饭” Airbnb能否走出监管阵痛

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

买到“债务问题房”如何维权?

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

近七成重点城市二手房价下跌 广东这个市跌幅居首

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • On Monday the research team said the skeleton confirmed that the monarch had severe scoliosis, or twisting of the spine. It may have been painful and caused his right shoulder to appear higher than his left, but there was no evidence of the withered arm depicted in Shakespeare's "Richard III".
  • 《生活大爆炸》中绝不缺少天才。不只是因为这部剧向观众展示了很多绝顶聪明的科学家,同时,演员玛伊姆·比亚利克还拥有神经学博士学位。因此,演员们想要在剧中展示他们的聪明才智,并将整部剧做到精益求精,这也不足为奇。剧中谢尔顿和莱纳德的公寓里有一块很大的白板,这对铁哥们几乎在处理任何事时都会用到它,从完成从学校带回来的工作,到决定是否等到看完最新一部《蜘蛛侠》再吃饭,都离不开这块白板。
  • 钢价跌破1994年价格水平 新型城镇化或能挽救钢市

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 从2016年6月1日至2017年6月1日,世界上收入最高的十位模特的税前总收入不算各项费用共计为1.095亿美元。
    温斯顿?丘吉尔(加里?奥德曼饰)刚刚上任英国首相,就面临着一个他生命中最关键的抉择:暗流涌动,是与纳粹德国和谈,还是依旧保持坚定立场,为了国家的理想、自由而战斗。
    She's the perfect choice for this role, having hosted the Oscars last year, and previously hosted the Grammy Awards and the Primetime Emmys.
  • According to Oliver Cooke, a financial-services recruiter at Selby Jennings in New York, banks have been stressing what they call “internal mobility”, or redeploying staff from one department to another. If a bank facing sluggish conditions in debt trading, for example, can convert a trader to a risk analyst or a compliance officer, it can keep people interested — and it can save a bundle on severance.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Celebritites always seem to have a better life than the rest of us;nicer house,cooler cars and even cuter children.Just look at these pictures of Shiloh Jolie-
  • 北京高院:因房屋“3·17新政”新政解除合同一般应支持
  • 这是继2016年我国首次同步调整企业和机关事业单位退休人员的基本养老金水平后,我国再次做出同步调整。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 全球最智能照明系统将落户美国“新纽约大桥”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 今年前4月北京减税降费490亿元 个税减税388亿元
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

中国成最大木材进口国 美国木材在中国畅销

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 南京库存2.3万套为啥买不到房 可售纯住宅占比少
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • “3·15家装曝光台”将走进建材商场、家装公司
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

保罗·乔治,克里斯·保罗,卡梅罗·安东尼,戈登·海沃德,吉米·巴特勒,德里克·罗斯,保罗·米尔萨普,J·J·雷迪克,埃里克·布莱索,德怀特·霍华德……自去年以来,换了东家的球员名单还在不断增加。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.
The report didn't comment on potential factors influencing the numbers, but many – including members of the opposing political party – are laying the blame squarely at the feet of government cost-cutting.
Leading actress Sun Li played Zhou in the drama. Despite her age, Sun, who was born in 1982, still successfully presented a lovely and innocent teenage Zhou in the eyes of many audience members.
2. 慢慢来。
Fereston recalls when writer Jennifer Crittenden stopped him in the hallway after filming and asked him, 'Are you sure about this? Are you sure you're not ruining Julia Louis-Dreyfus' career?' Considering Dreyfus won an Emmy that same year, it's safe to say the dance was a good career move for the actress. And now to reminisce, here is Elaine doing her famous "Elaine Dance."
n. 存货,储备; 树干; 血统; 股份; 家畜
源于:relax(v 放松;休息)
换总部:随着丰田迁至德州,奔驰从新泽西搬往北卡罗来纳州或乔治亚州,斯巴鲁也要建它的新总部了。它的一个选择是搬到离其客户群更近的佛蒙特州。
为了尝试遏制煤炭消耗量的增长,中国正在可再生能源和核能领域投入巨资,但尽管付出了这些努力,中国迄今为止依然是最大的温室气体排放国。中国每年因化石燃料燃烧和水泥生产排放100亿吨二氧化碳,几乎是美国的两倍,但美国的人均排放量依然远远高于中国。
五大发展理念:创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

彭政轩和赵明谈红木家具的未来:拼的是设计

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 这一要求出自我国交通部近日发布的关于出租车、网约车服务的两项新规其中的一项。两项新规将分别于今年10月、11月生效。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 本周二,年仅17岁的Thomas Sohmers推出了一个全新的高速计算机服务器,该计算机功耗极低,该计算机使用了低能耗的ARM处理器,而其所需电量仅为一台普通电脑一小部分。在本周在旧金山举行的Open Compute Project (OCP)大会上,Sohmers展示了这台服务器。这个产品是Sohmers所创办的企业REX所推出的第一个产品,REX的另一位创始人为52岁的Kurt Keville,目前Keville担任公司的CTO。
  • 民声热线”关注小区配套幼儿园是否“代建优先”?
  • Busting through the glass ceiling
  • 北京将会限制“企业购房”?
  • n. 所有权

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 大幅涨价 家居业被迫“寒冬”提价
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 你一定有一个连走路时都念念不忘的怪癖。你只想聊这个。瞧着吧,观众会被你帅到的。
  • Gitanjali表示,她想要进一步改善改设备,这样它最终就能进入市场了。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

红星美凯龙:首个财年利润65亿 筹建中商场还有466个!

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